The War Memorial

The War Memorial Booklet about the lives of Skipton people during the First World War has now be published. It is available at the Library and Tourist Information office.

As mentioned on the back of the booklet The War Memorial, much of the material came from a search through the wartime papers. Below are the notes, some of which found their way into the booklet but many more which did not. Anyone who is interested can find out more by using one of the film readers in the Reference Library.

From the Craven Heralds 1914 to 1918

Aug 14 War was declared a day before the mills’ annual shutdown, so the holiday was extended until the 18th to give the owners time to take stock of the situation. Fewer people than usual went away to the seaside. The Premier Picture Palace showed “Britain’s Might, a remarkable view of the British Fleet leaving the English Channel for the Great North Sea Battle”. The following week they showed “What Germany Has To Face, depicting gun firing from British Dreadnought”.

Mr Barrett, the Castle Steward, bought horses from farmers and riders, in his role as Chief Army Remount Officer. Two Germans were arrested in Skipton and taken away for investigation. One, Fred Krauss, returned a week later.

The Territorials had left for Grimsby on the 4th. On Sunday 9th 5 officers, 191 men with 54 horses and baggage formed up in the High Street and were marched to the station through crowds of well-wishers. At the station, a band played ‘Auld Lang Syne and the National Anthem. More left over the next few days.

Local doctors decided to give free medical treatment to wives and dependents of men who had gone overseas.

Dewhurst’s announced that they would hold open the jobs of enlisted men, and keep them on half-pay while they were away. The CrH reported; “It is interesting to add that since the inception of the Territorial Movement, the firm have paid full wages to all who could be spared – about 90% – for camp training, with a view to giving the movement the fullest encouragement”.

Front page ad Your King and Country Need You. Public Meetings for the Purpose of Recruitment for Lord Kitchener’s Army in front of the Town Hall at 11.30 and 7.30pm. 21st Aug.

Over 70 trainloads of troops from the North passed through Skipton one Saturday night and Sunday. Crowds cheered from every vantage point and one lady, “of Scotch descent, executed a sword dance on the greensward at the junction of Keighley Road and Carleton Road”. The paper wished then God Speed and a Safe Return, adding “for many of them, alas, it can never be”.

A rifle range was organised at the Skipton Rock Quarry, and up to 250 locals learned to shoot. There was talk of turning local workhouses into convalescent hospitals. A cadet corps was formed at Ermysted’s.

Sewing parties of ladies began making flannel shirts and nightshirts, from material supplied by the Committee.

There were 20 Belgian refugees staying at Bolton Abbey. They were brought into Skipton to attend St Stephen’s and then given tea at Rockwood by Mr T. Fattorini.

“a veritable town of wooden huts has been erected in an incredibly short time, between Raikes Road and Gargrave Road, and every sort of equipment and requirement incidental to a permanent camp is being provided for a Battalion of ‘Pals’ from Bradford”. They arrived on 15th Jan 1915.

Oct 1914 The British Government banned the importation of sugar. Nov 13th A recruiting convoy of 70 cars full of soldiers arrived from Halifax via Keighley, decorated with flags. They had music from a military band and the Skipton Mission Band. The Colonels made no attempt to disguise the fact that if men did not come forward voluntarily to offer their services, the probability was that they would eventually be compelled to do so. What a reflection that would be on liberty-loving England.


1915 January – air raids on east coast. Over 60 workers from Dewhurst’s Mill had enlisted. They mill was now making thread for the army which offsets the loss of continental trade.

Jan 22nd Account of Bradford Pals arriving, having marched from Bradford in torrential rain. Escorted from Keighley Rd up to the camp by a band. 2 Pals died of pneumonia during the first week. Two people in Skipton handed out white feathers.

Feb Blockade of Great Britain and Ireland – 4 steamers sunk. Air raids in Essex. St A’s building delayed by very wet weather. Soldiers’ letters ask for cigarettes and tobacco.

March Submarine sunk in Channel. 3 ships sunk off Scarborough, Hastings and Liverpool. 26th Account of Private Clarke’s funeral. YMCA hut opened at camp. 2nd reserve 6th D of W’s WR Regiment billeted in schools for several months. Readers could arrange to have the CrH sent to a soldier for 6d a month.

April 16th The 6th Battalion went to France – the first fully-equipped regiment from Craven that has been despatched to the scene of actual hostilities.

April 30th English Sewing Cotton decided to grant a bonus for the duration of the war to all employees earning less than 40/- a week. 1/- for women and youths, 2/- or 3/- for the others.

Skipton Rural District Council decided to keep jobs open for men who enlisted. Those still there were granted a bonus of 1/- a week.

May 1915 Sinking of Lusitania. All racing cancelled except Newmarket. Pals leave for Ripon and are replaced briefly by Leeds Bantams, marching from Ilkley.

July 23rd Letter from Front – How is Skipton looking for the Gala? We have our ‘gala’ every night, at least we have the firework display if nothing else. It’s a fine sight to see the star shells, they light up the whole countryside.

Account of gala – soldiers and children mostly, with decorated ‘cars’ from the Sunday Schools mostly on themes of religious stories or Peace. Jugglers, acrobats and Goliath the Herculean Wonder. Fancy dress etc.

Kilnsey Show cancelled. A soldier arrested for the murder of his wife whose body was found in the woods at Aireville. After a long trial he was acquitted.

After exactly a year of war, Skipton District has lost 75 men.

28th August Foundation stone laid for extension to Skipton hospital. Intended to be a children’s ward but initially for soldiers.

27th Lieut Supple dies – in story of pupil and teacher from Ermysted’s.

25th September Western Front offensive begins.

1st Dec 1915 Premier shows film of Edith Cavell. Outbreak of scarlet fever. Black Watch in kilts in Skipton.

1,000 employed at Belle Vue Mills. Problems getting dyes. No houses built in 1915. St A’s opened by TH Dewhurst.

Diphtheria in Brougham St. New wing of Sk hosp opens, 6 male beds, 6 female, 10 children’s, 4 new bedrooms for nurses and open balcony over kitchen.

Conscription from March 1916. Looming, twisting and overlooking are all reserved occupations, but mill-owners have to take other cases to tribunal individually and prove they cannot be replaced by women or older men. In some firms, 40% of the men have gone. 45% at Dewhursts. They make exemption claims for 28 men as they are doing work for the military and for export. Skipton MP W Clough is against conscription and demands are made to get rid of him for being unpatriotic.

14th April 16 The cackle of the conscientious objector is not worth wasting time upon, but we cannot refrain from expressing amazement at some of the arguments advanced by these individuals … One of them hoped the time would come when men the world over would be brothers, Another had ‘the courage’ to declare that if a wounded soldier came to his door for assistance, he would refuse it. This man, by the way, is an Englishman and 21 years of age. His objection was to taking life. Evidently his conscience is so elastic that it will also prevent him from saving it. It is difficult to believe that an Englishman is sincere in such opinions as these; they are too Hun-ish. Capt Arthur Morris Slingsby awarded posthumous MC.

Farming. Over 200,000 men have been taken off the land and absorbed into the army. When ‘Tommy comes marching home again’, he will find innumerable men’s jobs filled by women but it is doubtful if female labour will be anything more than a temporary makeshift on farms. In Germany it is no unusual sight to see women yoked to a plough but the British have an inborn repugnance to employing women in work requiring physical strength and endurance. We are proud of what women are doing in a time of need and accept their services in vital tasks with gratitude, but it must be admitted that a good deal of the work on the land is unsuited to their capacities.

Mills were still fighting to keep certain men at work, pointing out that one apprentice warp-dresser kept a number of women and their looms going. Some mills are using men over 70.

The Skipton Volunteers, mostly men in their 60s, had their first route march of 30 miles at 3 mph. Oath sworn.

May 19th First mention of a memorial to fallen soldiers. Committee for after the war but it should be borne in mind. Lieut Stephen Slingsby killed in a naval battle.

60 weavers might depend on one twister or one tackler. The Tribunal needed to understand that it took 3 years to train. Thomas Henry Dewhurst died.

July 1916 Tribunal to farmer wanting to retain shepherd; Have you thought of employing women? They are no good to me. Don’t women work at all in your neighbourhood? Only a bit in haytime. You are quite willing to let this man go if you can have a substitute? If they could send a skilled shepherd. Women, I know, are no good at shepherding.

Tribunal to Urban DC, re office workers; You might say Why don’t you try young ladies? To that I would say that all the ‘ripe cherries’ have been got.

Tribunal to master tailor who has already lost 2 of his 4 men; Is not making ladies’ costumes work that a woman can do? We have never gone in for women. You have never tried to get a woman.

250 wounded soldiers and 120 nurses and carers were taken to Bolton Abbey in cars. The weather was ‘unfortunate’ but they were treated to tea in the pavilion.

Those exempted generally now have to join the Volunteers, except men in mills who are already working overtime to fill in for missing colleagues.

Men are still being brought home and treated for wounds in eg Manchester, Salisbury, London and Aldershot.

In exactly 2 years, 277 have died from the Sk district. Tribunals are urged not to exempt men under 30, and the age limit may be raised to 45. Police are touring dance halls, pubs, billiard halls etc rounding up young men and telling them to report to the police station with their papers. 60-70 are questioned, but all had certificates.

Duke of Wellington’s Regiment is looking for cadets between 15 and 17 ½ and over 5’.

Under the Defence of the Realm Act, there is a blackout, strictly enforced round the coasts but less so inland. In some places they darken the crowns of the lamps but Skipton they are turned off. Flash lamps are permitted. We all grumble at what we consider the unnecessary limitation of light after sunset, and many have cause to do so by reason of broken teeth and bruised limbs through collision with lamp standards and tree guards, but we are in the hands of the powers that be and must perforce obey. There will soon be state control of food stocks.

In Germany, all men, women and boys between 16 and 60 must be in the forces or doing war work.

Some local mills are now getting trade which had been done in Germany, making it more vital to retain men. The Union – Amalgamated Association of Beamer, Twisters and Drawers – allows wounded soldiers to work in mills as long as the returning men will get their jobs back. They want there to be no new apprenticeships for 5 years, although the firms are not happy about it.

Dec 16 1916 A fund is started for soldiers and sailors who arrive at Skipton station too late for a bus to be taken home in a taxi, a car or even on a motorcycle. Under the Defence of the Realm Act, no church bells are rung on Christmas morning but the Mission Band plays outside the Town Hall. There are no cases of drunkenness. Next year there will be an increase of up to 50% in train fares.

Jan 1917 Women are advised to wear white hats at night, to be seen. Luminous buttons and collars have been invented. The luminous treatment is applied to the trimmings which glow with great brilliance, and the darker the night, the greater the light emitted. The collars should be worn throughout the day, in order that they may absorb the light. They are made from the best materials in all the fashionable shapes, and are very dainty and pretty. The luminosity lasts for years and no poisonous chemicals are used, nor are the collars inflammable. This is a British invention made by British workpeople. Feathers, birds and other decorations for hats have also been rendered luminous, by means of radium and phosphorus.

12th Jan The Salvation Army HQ on Belmont Bridge, next to the Gassing House of Belle Vue Mills, has burned down. 30 years old, it was made of wood and corrugated iron and owned by Belmont Baptist Chapel. The harmonium and brass band instruments have been destroyed.

SUDC starts allotments, 131 totalling 9 ½ acres by Ings Avenue, Spring Gardens, the Sewage Farm, Keighley Road, Firth Recreation Ground and Old Raikes.

A Head Loomer and Twister, aged 26, is granted exemption. He has 7 brothers serving. You can buy Freeman’s Real Turtle Cubes, to make instant soup.

Feb 1917 Farmers are urged to plough ‘unproductive’ land and grow corn and potatoes . They claim corn will not ripen as it needs to be in the sun, and there are not enough men left on farms. Ploughs are sold at Manby’s and on the market. The Women’s National Land Service Corps is established. March 17 The CrH goes up from 1d to 1 ½ d. There are calls for voluntary rationing. A mill applies to keep a Costing Clerk and Book-Keeper; It was claimed that the work could not be done by ladies unless they had first studied costing and the quantities of yarns. They had employed girls already to do the book-keeping, with disappointing results.

There are 4 twisters and one learner for 84 looms. Scouts collect books and magazines to be sent, post-free, to troops.

March 1917 There is less importation of meat, fruit and tea, and no importation of coffee and cocoa although there are enough stocks for 2 years. No restrictions on milk, cheese, eggs and fish. Bananas are a rare luxury and beer may go up to 1/- a pint! Only 10,000,000 are to be brewed per year, less than a third of the usual supply. The 10/- bottle of whisky may become a reality. Ennie Clarke, killed, brothers Sidney and Fred fighting.

94,000 fewer babies have been born in the country since the war began, and of those, 1 in 10 does not survive before its first birthday.

A soldier writes; We only work 7 days a week, the rest we have to ourselves.

April 1917 Another soldier; I think we have got the Germans beaten now. The infantry got about 5 lines of trenches where we are now and he is still going back. There is plenty of shot and shell flying about, and everybody thinks it will be over this year. Let us hope so, then everybody can get back home again. I would like to have a look at the old place once more. This man is not listed among the dead.

The Army is 100,000 men short so extra pressure is put on the Tribunals. There is a shortage of seed potatoes, so people are urged to eat Swedes, formerly seen as cattle food but now the New War Potato. They are not very nutritious and not very cheap. The same money spent of pease pudding would yield 5 times the ‘food value’. The poor will suffer most from potato-less days and the patriotic person who has the means to make up in other ways abstains from potatoes as an article of diet. Substitutes cost more. Food hoarding is “dangerous and costly” and police have powers to search houses if it is suspected.

The Workhouse was to be used for wounded soldiers. 90 arrived in early May.

April 13th There were no potatoes in Skipton, and coal was scarce. Weaving sheds had to be up to 50° within half an hour of starting in the mornings, so this was a problem.

Rats and sparrows were destroying more food than German submarines. Councils were allowed to spend public money on eradicating them. You could get 1/- a dozen for rats’ tails and 2d a dozen for the heads of unfledged sparrows, 3d for fully-fledged.

May 4th 1917 Nurse Fanny Mason, from Giggleswick, was killed when the ‘Salta’ was hit by a submarine. Some shops were rationing sugar. There was compulsory rationing in Germany but it was hoped to avoid it here. A travelling Food Economy Exhibition was to come to the Science & Art School, to show the need for eating less, with particular reference to bread, and the desirability of people purchasing the more expensive foods, what voluntary rationing meant and how substitutes for rationed food can be used. People were encouraged to eat nettles, and to add cooked rice to bread dough. Waste paper was to be collected for recycling. Conscription was to include men 41-50.

June 8th War Agriculture Committee visits Craven Tenant Farmers Assoc; Generally speaking the women of the country had buckled to with a will. When war came and it was recognised that there would be a shortage of labour for agriculture, many hundreds of women came forward voluntarily, and girls who had never expected to work a day in their lives had proved a tremendous success (Hear Hear!) Farmers had said they could do with any amount of women of the right sort and that generally meant women of high education, to whom they were only prepared to give labourers’ wages. Women who came forward were given a month’s training in ploughing, stable work, pigs and poultry and milking. The pay was 18/- a week but in mills they could earn between 30/- and £2.

June Everyone must eat less sugar – salt can be added to milk puddings and jam. You were told to add a pinch of bicarb to the teapot to save tea. Nothing must be thrown away, the water used for boiling rice will take the place of starch. In Skipton butter was 1/10 – 2/-, eggs 5 for 1/-, potatoes 2lb for 3 ½ d, chicken 4/6 each. [Jan 1914 butter 1/2-1/3, Danish 1/4 per lb, eggs 6-7 1/-, rabbits 2s a couple, hares 2-3/- ea, chickens 3/- ea.]

A new sport, which combines utility with amusement, is being encouraged by the authorities. You are urged to kill rats, house sparrows, rooks, cabbage moths and common white butterflies.

Craven farmers were proving reluctant to plough and it was now enforceable. If a farmer refused, the Agricultural Exec Committee could enforce it, sometimes by ploughing and charging the farmer for the work. Tenancy could be lost. Discharged soldiers are being recalled. Some shopkeepers are demanding that people buy additional things if they want potatoes. July. Allotment holders are to be allowed temporary stalls in the High Street to sell surplus produce. Military funeral at St Stephen’s, with band, of soldier wounded at Mons. Food parcels are being sent to Craven POWs. The gala will be on the North Ward Recreation Ground, Raikes Road, and entry will cost 7d/4d. Wounded soldiers helped out, and highlights were the Sunday Schools’ decorated carts.

It is suggested that people could grow sugar beet for jam. This year’s potato crop seems to be better than last year’s.

July 20th 1917 Private Arthur Hyde, a prisoner in Limburg Camp, Germany, writes to his wife: “Just a few lines hoping you are all well, as it leaves me at present. I believe I will be home before very long. I think the war will soon be over, I don’t care how soon. I could settle down a lot better here is I got a letter from you. And when one does arrive I expect it to be a mile long, with Silsden news and one thing and another. I get on very well with the Germans, they are good and bad the same as any other race. I am now going to start begging, and appended is a list of things I most desire. I will start off with a good jam roll, you know them, those they boil in a cloth. Then I want a bit of bread and some lemon cheese to put on it; then some treacle, and a tin of Oxo or soup tablets, a tin of cocoa, sugar and milk tablets, and a few cigarettes. Just send what you can afford as I expect things will be a price by now. But above all send that pudding, which will stick in my ribs. I shall have to make one letter suffice for all of you as I can only write once a week. Anyone who writes, tell them to send me a few cigarettes in their letter. You must send an envelope and a sheet of writing paper every time you write. Do not send any tins such as sardines.”

Aug 3rd 1917 2 Military Medals were presented by Mr Morrison outside the Town Hall in front of a great crowd. One was a time-expired man (15 years) and the other on leave. Morrison proposed a book after the war, which would contain the names of the officers and men who had given their lives for their country and the names of all who had joined the DofW’s in the first year of the war. The book would no doubt continue to be an heirloom in Craven families and generations would point to the names of their ancestors and express their pride that they had done their duty. [Craven’s Part in the Great War]

The whole of the West Riding was within the prohibited area for taking photographs outdoors (Def of Realm Act). This was relaxed in rural areas but you needed a permit. A photographer was arrested at Moorview Baths.

More men were released from the Army for ploughing.

There are 400 Duke of Wellington’s POWs in Germany. Each (theoretically) receives 6 food parcels a month plus weekly bread from Switzerland. We are informed on good authority that many of our brave soldiers in captivity are brutally ill-treated and housed under the most vile conditions, and but for the food parcels sent out from England, they would be in a state of starvation. The sum of £240 per week is required, every week while the war lasts.

Aug 10th 1917 China declares war on Germany. The Gala raises £220 for the hospital. The price of bread is to be fixed at 9d per loaf, but people must still eat less.

Mill holidays. Despite higher prices, some families still went to the seaside but many more stayed at home and walked in the Dales. If your oven does not brown things, paint the inside with whitewash.

People are urged to make soup from peapods, and to save on matches, use spills. There is a coal shortage in Skipton. Milk has gone up from 4d to 5d a pint, 6d from October.

Make cubes from gelatine, milk, sugar, coffee essence or strong tea or coffee. When set, cut into cubes and send to the soldiers who can then make a drink with hot water. Sugar rationing cards are distributed. You should add leftover porridge to cakes, soups and rissoles.

October Every other street light in Skipton is to be lit. Soldiers still coming to hospitals in England.

Each farm must plough 5 acres in 1918. Soldiers are to be trained to use canal boats to bring supplies from Liverpool. Coal prices are fixed, 2/6 a ton delivered to the cellar.

Dec 7th 1917 A Skipton tank officer: Here we are again, still smiling, quite happy and well. We went into action at 6.20am on the 20th, and my word, did we not give the old Hun something to think about! What shooting we had! The Boches came out of their catacombs and dugouts with their hands up and our little crew captured 20 of them, and how many were killed with my Lewis gun I don’t like to say.

Ermysted’s Founders Day. It was proposed after the war to build a school war memorial in the form of a large library in which the Petyt library may be kept, and on the walls of which might be hung portraits of old scholars who have fallen in the war.

SUDC is accused of selling potatoes from the Sewage Farm Allotments at 1/- over the fixed price.

Some young ladies on farms wrote their addresses on eggs which were sent to France, and sometimes soldiers wrote back. One, from a farm in Dent, had a letter from a soldier who had once worked on that very farm.

1918 The retail price of milk has gone up to 2/- a gallon and there are complaints. Beef is also scarce in Skipton. Jan 4th – potatoes are now cheap and plentiful so can make larger meals possible. Bread should now be made with equal parts of flour and mashed potato. Margarine; Although the chief raw material for the manufacture of margarine comes almost entirely from British West Africa, we allowed the industry to become almost a German and Dutch monopoly. That is now going to be altered. There is an export duty on palm kernels shipped from West Africa to foreign countries but not when shipped to this country. That is a beginning to securing the first claim to the raw materials of the Empire for British industries. So Dutch manufacturers are now setting up factories in England. Margarine, originally ‘butterine’, was a product of the Franco-German war, to combat butter shortages. It was made by churning up a little milk with melted-down beef fat, and when there was no more fat, resort was had to supplies of cotton-seed, cocoa nut and other vegetable aids. Our manufacturers now make 5,000 tons per week but rations are ¼ lb per week. Maybe this war will produce a substitute for margarine.

11th Jan “Parliament after the war will be faced with tasks impossible to discharge unless really representative of the grown citizens of the country, and that representation must be proportional” Sir John Simon, Liberal MP.

German officers brought to Raikeswood Camp. The Rector of Rylstone writes to the CrH expressing surprise at the lack of opposition from locals. He sends the paper cuttings showing examples of depravity of Germans in France which “show[s] the sort of creatures this district would appear to be about to welcome into its midst”.

The price of fish rises. Much of it comes from Canada, and the North Sea fleet has been reduced from about 800 ships to about 200. The word ‘camouflage’ begins to be used, and has been tried by the Americans and the French as “obliteration colouration”. “All-leather wartime boots” are to be on sale from the end of January; a woman’s boot for hard wear 15/9 and a superior class 24/6. There will also be standard suits for men from 57/6.

18th Jan 1918 Why buy butter? A good substitute is to get some kidney suet from the butcher, boil it and add salt enough to suit the taste. After, strain through butter muslin and leave for a day or two. This will be found as good as Danish butter.

Humour column – Small girl; Oh Mummy, I should so like to be an angel. Why is that, my darling? So that I could drop bombs on the Germans. Workhouses and Poor Law Unions are likely to be abolished after the war, and their duties to be passed to the County Councils.

In scores of houses in Skipton there has been no meat at all for a week and the same thing will again apply this weekend. There is also a shortage of rabbits, which sell for 2/-. Country people ‘cannot be bothered’ to catch them. [Presumably they did but didn’t take them into the towns.]

A Communal Kitchen was tried in Settle but was used by people who could afford to eat elsewhere and not solely by the people for whom it was intended. Skipton Magistrates would like to ban dancing but often dances raise money for war causes. Suggested recipes – Potato pie, consisting of potatoes and an onion in potato pastry. Parsnip Coffee – wash and bake the small ends of parsnips, crush or grate them and put 1 teaspoonful in 1 pint of boiling water and add boiled milk. Potato butter to spread on bread – 6oz mashed potatoes beaten with 1oz butter or marg. Does not keep.

22nd Jan. MP Mr Clough is in court because as a landlord, he is said to have instructed his tenant farmer not to plough despite regulations. He says he did not want ploughing but had told the tenant that he would not hold it against him if he did so. Tenant says he was afraid of him so dared not. Clough fined £50.

Complaints that the German POWs are getting larger rations than locals. Skipton rations now 1 ½ oz tea each per week, 4oz marg or butter. System for meat rationing due shortly.

If your flock mattress is lumpy, empty it all out onto a sheet, beat the filling with a stick, and refill. Make carrot jam.

Before the war the craft of hairdresser, like so many other industries, was almost entirely in the hands of foreigners, but the aliens have now been practically eliminated and the skilled woman hairdresser is coming to the fore.

1st March 1918 Distribution of meat rationing cards. Wounded soldiers allowed free fishing in waters owned by Skipton Angling Assoc.

We must never forget that the Huns had their poison gas plant ready before the war and it is nearly 3 years since they horrified the world by launching gas clouds against the Canadians in Flanders. It was a long time before the Allies hit back in this direction but they now have all the advantages in this gas warfare. The Germans are stewing in their own dirty juice and are asking whether it is not time to suspend gas warfare on humanitarian grounds! Unfortunately no-one would trust a German to keep his word and we must continue to dose him with his own horrible weapon until he realises that others have an equal right with him to a place on the earth.

25th March There is now meat rationing all over the country. People get approx 20 oz per week, half for under-10s. It is hoped that soon there will be arrangements for larger rations for heavy workers. Suggestions that the school-leaving age should be raised to 14 raise protests, saying that children’s wages are needed to help the family. The Catholics and others protest at a meeting in the Town Hall against the idea of making divorce easier. This, they say, will overturn 2,000 years of civilisation. The rates go up 6d, the salaries of the Surveyor, Gas Manager, Accountant, Sanitary Inspector and Librarian go up 12 ½%.

April 1918 Businesses decide to form a Chamber of Trade. Suggestions that the town’s War Memorial should be a YMCA branch. Mr Barrett of Skipton Castle said they should not discuss memorials in the middle of a war. The Agricultural Show is cancelled. The taxi service for Stranded Soldiers is taking home about 30 men a week.

May. More ploughing is being done. Grassington lead mines may be re-opened after 40 years. There is a measles outbreak and Skipton is finally to get a Health Visitor. A party from Skipton, including children, goes to Bolton Abbey for a day, taking milk, sugar, tea and mugs. They go to a cottage to ask for hot water and are asked for 4d each.

31st May Willie Holt’s billiard rooms on Swadford Street has 14 full-size tables and is “the coolest room in Skipton”.

The Government is still desperately trying to juggle the demands for men in the army with men in the mills and on farms. More soldiers are released to plough. The time has now arrived when no fit man can be allowed to remain in civil life unless the circumstances are altogether out of the ordinary. A manufacturer who appeared before the Skipton Urban Military Tribunal was told that employers ought now to try and carry on with nothing but weaklings and the older men.

7th June The War suits are 84/- for first-grade material, 70/- for youths, and 57/6 for third grade.

7th June 1918 Sir Matthew Wilson of Eshton Hall given a DSO. A well-known big-game hunter, he was in the Royal Hussars in the South African War and then an instructor at Sandhurst. Advertisement for cocoa, which has not been imported since 1914. A firm in Lancashire – Welco, rich in natural cocoa butter, a most valuable food drink during the shortage of milk, butter, meat etc. 9d ¼ lb.

There are plans for a National Food Kitchen for Skipton for the coming winter; in view of the shortage of food and the abnormal cost of food at present. Those wanting a YMCA branch as a war memorial hold a meeting in the Town Hall but only 40 attend. Skipton is notably and lamentably lethargic in taking on new ideas. There is no enthusiasm about any public movement in its initiary (sic) stages and only those who have done the collar work in the past know how heart-breaking is any attempt to rouse the town from its do-nothing, care-nothing attitude.

The threatened limitation of travelling facilities is nearer that most people realise. We have it on good authority that this week arrangements have been entered into, the result of which will be that before people can take a holiday at most of the popular Lancashire resorts, they will be required to send in to the station officials giving details of their proposed destination, the date of departure, the length of stay etc. The moral is that before fixing up holidays in Blackpool, Fleetwood, Southport – it is possible that Morecambe may be exempted – our readers should make certain that they will be able to travel thither, at any rate on the Lancashire railways.

1st July 1918 The CrH will pay 1d per lb of waste paper delivered to their office. 4 German officers escape from Raikeswood Camp but are recaptured, 2 in Colne. The flu epidemic reaches Skipton and over 80 are off sick at Belle Vue Mills. Quinine suggested as a preventative.

SUDC finally advertises for a Health Visitor. She will get £120 per year and take charge of infant welfare, school health, infectious diseases and oversee the health of women workers. Baby Week – every baby born in Skipton during Baby Week who lives for 12 months will be presented with a War Savings Certificate. There will be a Garden Social for mothers and children under 4 in the Castle grounds, with orchestral music and dancing by children of the Parish Church School. Local carters go on strike, through their union. It is organised from London. They want an extra 5/- a week. Before the war they got £1.3s a week and now get £2.3s but want £2.8s. The rise is agreed for August and most local carters return to work. 26th July It is wet for the Gala but £250 is raised for the hospital. No tea was laid on and games were held at Sandylands. Most train services are cut by 40%.

2nd August 1918 People picking mushrooms are damaging crops. This is illegal under the Defence of the Realm Act. The old lady at The Bungalow, Water Street, dies at 90. She was a vicar’s widow and is probably the lady in the photo. Mrs Cooper. Daughter of John Benson Sidgewick and probably one of the children at Stone Gappe to whom Charlotte Bronte was governess. There has been no dried fruit for some months. [How are they still getting lemons???]

Harvesters in Yorkshire are paid £3.10 a week.

9th Aug There is a milk shortage in Skipton because it is more profitable to sell to the cities. Also June was very dry. The County Council sets up a Child Welfare Centre in rooms at the Labour Exchange on Newmarket Street. This causes problems with SUDC’s new Health Visitor, who is assumed by the County Council to be doing both jobs.

The Horse Fair sees about twice as many horses as the previous two years, which is odd because the Army bought so many horses. Prices are about double those pre-war, eg £80-90 for a good heavy horse.

6th September 1918 New meat ration cards distributed. You have to take them to your designated butcher. Pacifists hold a meeting in the Co-op Assembly Room. It is led by ministers from the Baptist and Congregationalists. They want ‘Peace by Negotiation’ and are heckled by wounded soldiers. Outside they are jostled, hit in the face and threatened with being ducked in the canal. Police escort them to safety.

There is a looming shortage of coal. Skipton has 100 tons and needs 4-500 tons. There are protests that the German prisoners are being given fresh local meat instead of frozen.

20th Sept Meat Supplies to German Prisoners – A complaint from Skipton At a meeting of the Federation of Retail Butchers held at Leeds last weekend, it was reported that at Skipton Auction Mart on the previous Monday, the Allocation Committee, on the authority of a Government certificate, allotted a certain number of livestock to be slaughtered for the German prisoners at a local camp. In view of the fact that there are large quantities of frozen meat available, from which all classes of the British public have to take their quota, the meeting considered that, in the interests of the consuming public, a very strong protest should be made against the use of best quality British meat for the German prisoners and the following resolution was unanimously adopted; “That this Federation of Yorkshire Retail Butchers strongly protests against the allocation of livestock for German prisoners when there are abundant supplies of frozen meat available. The British public should not be deprived of English meat and be compelled to accept frozen, while German prisoners are consuming meat of a better quality”.

 Feelings run high because of letters from POWs in Germany. 27th Sept A visitor complains that the Germans are having too good a time. Some are employed in the stone quarries around Grassington; there is a store of explosives and no guards. There is not a soldier except perhaps a village boy on leave within a mile of them. When they leave work in the quarry about half past five, they are free, after having their evening meal of extra rations, to roam the roads at will until 9pm. You can see them with maidens and matrons, flirting without any hindrance in the highways… Whilst British workmen in different parts of the country have to go without beer owing to the shortage, these men are not only able to get it but to get drunk upon it…They are housed in huts which join up with the exception of about 10 yards with cottages in which British women and children live. They are paid full Trade Union rates of £2-5 a week, less £1 for board… These overpaid, over-fed sons of infamy …” There are few sanctions if they are not back by 9pm as there is only one policeman with a couple of specials, and they are often drunk and noisy when they return.

There is some kind of potato blight on Firth Recreation Ground allotments.

4th Oct 1918 A POW from Skipton, captured in May, says that he has never had a proper wash nor a smoke nor a shave and has had precious little to eat … no razors and no soap. Allowed to write one letter a fortnight and one postcard a week … no parcels from home nor from the Red Cross It was thought that parcels were being taken by the Germans in some camps and that earlier letters reporting good treatment were dictated by the Germans. In Skipton people gather to watch the German officers coming out of the camp, but they should not. The morbid curiosity exhibited in waiting for and watching the German prisoners of war emerge from the local camp or arrive at Skipton station is altogether out of place and we hope it will be discontinued. It only gives the captured enemy an opportunity of exhibiting his nauseous ‘swank’ and supercilious airs. An entire absence of interest and total indifference would be a more becoming and dignified attitude on the part of many women and girls.

There are still wounded soldiers in hospital in England. Skipton MP W. Clough defends Conscientious Objectors; More than a 1,000 young men have been cast into prison because they were deemed to be soldiers and refused to be disobedient to Divine Laws. To his mind hundreds of these men are veritable Daniels … so long as the men had a clear conscience they could defy the world.

Invalids need white flour but despite there being stocks in Skipton, the Food Control Committee says it can only be obtained by ordering via Hull at much more than it would cost locally. A son of the Skipton postmaster was wounded on the Western Front. He writes that he found a metal case containing a German hypodermic syringe and put it in his pocket. This saved him from a further would in the thigh. The scent of pineapple heralds a gas attack. In the trenches our corpulent cook, with his indispensible Primus stove and pots and pans hung round his neck in sandbags arrives and in spite of his now smutty face, greasy suit and questionable hands, a meal that would tickle the most delicate appetite is prepared.

18th Oct 1918 A deputation from SUDC visits a National Kitchen in Leeds. One for Skipton would cost £350 to set up and would need to sell between 1,200 and 1,500 portions a day to pay. The district has 4,000 people, of whom half live in Middletown and Newtown, so that is where it would need to be. It would cost £7-8 per week to run and if it does not pay, shortfall would come out of the rates. A 3-course meal for 10 ½ d is available in Leeds.

25th Oct The CrH is in favour of having a YMCA as a war memorial for the town. Butter in Skipton, at the controlled price, is 2/6 lb, eggs 6 for 2/-, lemons 3d each, rabbits 9 ½ per lb.

8th Nov 1918 The Versailles Conference has begun. The first Skipton POW to be exchanged tells of the Unspeakable brutality of the Germans. Our men are put to work behind German lines at almost hourly risk of being killed and has stated that the sanitary arrangements at the camps were beyond description, being filthy and lousy past belief … while our men are often given shirts stiff with blood through being taken off wounded men Other local men have told us in their letters that they would have starved to death had it not been for the parcels sent from home. Altogether the outrageous manner in which POWs have been treated by the Huns is one of the worst features of the criminal method of fighting deliberately adopted by the Germans, and when the terms of peace are drawn up, there must surely be no mercy for the guilty.

15th November 1918 1,500 gallant lives in the Skipton District have been lost. On the 11th, at 11am, mill buzzers and church bells sounded, flags were unfurled, crowds gathered in the streets and some mils closed at 12. Most of the schools were already closed due to flu.

Germans in Grassington German prisoners in Grassington

Apart from these two extracts from the CrH, David Pritchard of the Grassington Museum has been told of a camp off Skirethornes Lane in Threshfield, which he assumes was for prisoners working in Threshfield Quarry.

I think this letter refers to the Germans coming to Skipton because it says they are officers, but who knows? Jan 18th 1918 The Rector of Rylstone writes to the CrH; “It would appear that no public protest has been made against German prisoners being brought to this district; indeed, one hears it said that it is considered a good thing for the tradesmen etc. If this is the prevailing idea, it may be of interest to your readers to study the enclosed cutting … It is quite possible that among these prisoners now arriving in the district are some of Kultured “gentlemen” here spoken of, or who have performed similar acts of barbarity. In any case, it is testimony, taken at first hand, as to what German officers can degrade themselves into doing and shows what sort of creatures this district would appear to be about to welcome into its midst”. C.H. Lowe, Rylstone Rectory

The cutting is from the Daily Telegraph 11th January 1918 and tells of wounded British prisoners having to walk in single file between two rows of German soldiers; These barbarians made it their sport to spit at these men and to stick their bayonets and swords into them as they passed along, and their chief amusement when they saw a soldier hobbling along on crutches was to kick a crutch away and then to hit him with it until he got up again.

27th Sept 1918 A Special Commissioner of the Empire News complains that the Germans are having too good a time; The German Peril in Craven. I have been spending a few days around the bracing grouse moors of Yorkshire, in the neighbourhood of Grassington (Skipton) where Germans militant and civilian are employed, not interned. Here I found a number of German civilian prisoners freed from the safety of internment that they might work in the stone quarries of the district. There is a store of explosives and no guards. There is not a soldier except perhaps a village boy on leave within a mile of them. When they leave work in the quarry about half past five, they are free, after having their evening meal of extra rations, to roam the roads at will until 9pm. You can see them with maidens and matrons, flirting without any hindrance in the highways. Whilst British workmen in different parts of the country have to go without beer owing to the shortage, these men are not only able to get it but to get drunk upon it. Now when I write that they must be in at 9, I must take care that I do not give the impression that there is some authority to insist upon it. If they are not in at 9, they run the risk of the police finding out that they are missing and having them sent back, that’s all.

They are housed in huts which join up with the exception of about 10 yards with cottages in which British women and children live. They are paid full Trade Union rates of £2-5 a week, less £1 for board. They have also the extended ration such as is allowed to British miners and foundrymen who have to do hard work. They are supposed to return to their huts at 9 at night but recently four of them were found missing at that hour by THE police officer of the district, who has a special or two to assist him. As the official party returned towards the village in search of the missing ones, a roistering party made themselves heard. It was the merry Huns, “beautifully tight” and singing. When asked by the sergeant why they were out late, the reply was “We are earning good money and we are going to spend it and have a good time, just like Englishmen do”.

At half past 8 I was outside the quarry when these men stopped for breakfast. The engines had hardly ceased to work before they were out and along the road to the huts. There was no search made for explosives, so that they could have carried any quantity possible to accommodate in their pockets. Four little children, a boy and three tiny girls, stood with wide-open eyes, staring at these overpaid, over-fed sons of infamy as they carelessly filed into the huts to a steaming hot breakfast.

As though to complete the picture, the authorities have now drafted 20 young Germans captured in action into the village. There is no barbed wire compound, so the men are billeted in an old dance hall attached to the premises of the Black Horse Hotel. I spent some time in the yard leading to the ‘dance hall prisoner camp’ after dinner the other evening. About 10 village lads gathered in one corner and 8-10 girls between 16 and 22 stood at the entrance. We were all entertained to a concert given by the prisoners … after singing German folklore and patriotic songs, the final contribution to the programme was a song that included the words “We shall fight and die for the Fatherland”, which the swineherd sang in robust and lusty chorus. It was not even confined to German in parts, just so that those around them might fully understand their feelings.

The village boys were then cleared out but the girls at the entrance were allowed to remain. The tint of irony was added to the picture when a convalescent Scottish soldier and his wife joined the crowd of curious girls and gazed upon the revelling scum. This scene did not create any sense of shame among the girls. They remained laughing and talking foolishly until the order to retire was given the Huns. I did not see them having alcoholic drink but they are close enough to it when they occupy the outbuildings of a hotel. There was not a suspicion of arms about the place and the guards were really foolish in their belief that these prisoners were too pleased with their lot to make for greater freedom.

At Skipton I was asked by an influential local gentleman to protest on behalf of the inhabitants against the boulevarding of the German officers during certain hours of the day. Parties of these men, accompanied in front by a British officer and at the rear by a ranker, are allowed to walk through the town. To women who have to pass them, the situation is embarrassing, and all the women in Skipton are not like those who visited the camp and threw cigarettes and sweets to those behind the wire. This practice has now been stopped, not that these women have seen the shame of their conduct but because the part of the camp where they had access to the prisoners has now been built up. The boulevarding continues however and it is resented.

 It would take an abnormal view of the imagination to permit of an Englishman picturing one of his countrymen with access to dynamite in Germany, with wages so high that gay nights can be enjoyed, and conditions obtaining which allow of night walks with German maidens and freedom to purchase whatever they money will pay for. The worst punishment that can be inflicted upon these well-paid Germans for camp misdemeanour is to be sent, not to penal servitude but to the Isle of Man.

The following week, the CrH published this; The earnings of interned aliens. We have made enquiries of responsible quarters respecting the statement in the “Empire News” (reproduced in our issue last week) that the interned aliens employed in the stone quarries at Threshfield are receiving up to £5 per week, out of which they pay £1 each week for board. The statement is not true. The aliens are paid the trade union rate of wages prevailing in the district (obviously to avoid undercutting) but their emoluments are paid over to the military authorities by the employer, and the former discharge the liability for board and lodging. The only money the men actually handle, we are informed, consists of a penny or three-half-pence per hour, according to the status of the workmen, so that their pocket money cannot exceed a few shillings a week. These are facts, not fancies; and it is due to the general public that they should know them. 4th Oct 1918 Thanks to Jane Lunnon for this and two other cuttings.

From this, there seem to have been three groups of Germans – the officers in Raikeswod Camp in Skipton, those – prisoners? Internees? – in huts in Threshfield and the 20 in the dance-hall behind the Black Horse Hotel in Grassington.

The anonymous writer seems to have come into contact with all three groups. The reference to civilians is confusing as I can’t find any civilians interned in the immediate area. There were large camps in Wakefield and Ripon.

Any additional information would be very welcome.

Skipton War Memorial Unveiled on April 8th 1922 – coverage in Craven Herald of 14th

The origins of War Memorials

Amazingly, given the military and maritime history of Britain, there were very few war memorials – in the sense that we know them today – before 1918. In Georgian and Victorian Britain most soldiers joined the army to escape poverty and retribution from the law, so when they died nobody considered commemorating them.

Officers might be remembered on a tablet in their local church but for the ordinary soldier there was little or no form of remembrance. When they were remembered it was as a mass, as a member of a Regiment or, as in the case of the Culloden battlefield, as a member of a specific clan.

World War One changed all that. It was a war fought, not by what Wellington and his generals considered to be “scum”, but by volunteer armies – clerks and steel workers, miners and shopkeepers. These were men who would be remembered.
War memorials had their origins in the shrines that bereaved people set up on the village green or simply on the street corner during the war years, the modern equivalent being the flowers left by friends and relatives at the roadside after a fatal car accident. When peace came in 1918 there was a demand for permanent memorials to the fallen. BBC Wales website

Britain had begun to remember her dead while the war was still on, with ‘street shrines’, the first of which was established in an east London street where 65 men had enlisted from 40 houses. The Imperial War Museum was established in 1917 specifically to commemorate the war, and after the armistice a great range of memorials, public and private, sprang up across the land, marking a sacrifice which was wholly unprecedented. Tommy, Richard Holmes

One important reason for having a local war memorial was that people soon realised their loved ones would not be brought home for burial, so they would have no grave to visit as a focus for their grief. A war memorial filled this role for the whole community, at an annual Remembrance Day and at other times, such as birthdays and anniversaries, when families could lay flowers or just visit to think and pray.

CrH 29th Nov 1918. SUDC is divided on this.[building a YMCA as a memorial, as opposed to a monument] Some said they wanted something different. The CrH supports a YMCA over “public baths, cottage homes, garden cities and museums” which are usually out of public funds, not public subscriptions. CrH quotes the Rev F.G. Forder, Hon Sec of the YMCA scheme, “A town’s war memorial should continue the work of uplifting mankind which our soldiers and sailors had so well begun, and to have such a dead thing as a fountain or even a building was, it seemed to him, rather dangerous in that it would not be a living memorial”.

Other suggestions included ‘extensions of almshouses, extension of the Free Library to take in the whole of the premises on the site of the present building, with a museum, a baths in the centre of town, a little garden city for war widows and crippled soldiers, between Sun Moor Lane and Shortbank Road’.

CrH 22nd Nov 1918 The YMCA, for which funds are already being raised [they need £10,000] should be a War Memorial. There is no comparison between a stereotyped memorial fountain or public statue and a YMCA as a memorial to the great war. [NB use of this phrase, though without capitals, in 1918].

29th Nov 1918. SUDC is divided on this. Some said they wanted something different. The CrH supports a YMCA over “public baths, cottage homes, garden cities and museums” which are usually out of public funds, not public subscriptions. CrH quotes the Rev F.G. Forder, Hon Sec of the YMCA scheme, “A town’s war memorial should continue the work of uplifting mankind which our soldiers and sailors had so well begun, and to have such a dead thing as a fountain or even a building was, it seemed to him, rather dangerous in that it would not be a living memorial”.

Other suggestions included ‘extensions of almshouses, extension of the Free Library to take in the whole of the premises on the site of the present building, with a museum, a baths in the centre of town, a little garden city for war widows and crippled soldiers, between Sun Moor Lane and Shortbank Road’.

CrH 23rd May 1919 Christ Church War Memorial At a recent meeting of parishioners of Christ Church, the Rev R. Thorman presiding, it was decided that a memorial be placed inside the church consisting of bronze tablets, bearing the names of those who gave their lives during the war, with a sculptured shrine or calvary, the design and position to be arranged later. On an appeal to the meeting, promises of support were forthcoming amounting to £50. It was also decided to make the project known throughout the parish by circular and the agency of the district visitors, pointing out that at least £200 would be required to provide a worthy memorial. Further arrangements were left with the vicar and churchwardens.

CrH 16th May 1919 War Memorials – Selfish suggestions In practically all the towns and villages of Craven, steps are being taken to provide public memorials to the men who have given their all in the great war. In many of the discussions which are associated with the memorials, the suggestion of providing something of a useful character is brought forward and appears always to find plenty of support. We are inclined to think that the question of usefulness should not be associated with a memorial to the self-sacrifice of our lads in the war. There is a taint of selfishness about it which is connection with such a noble purpose should be entirely absent and we hope that Silsden and other places which have not yet decided on the form which their war memorials shall take will put on one side all suggestions of such things as public baths, almshouses etc. Let the memorial take some form which will be a lasting memorial pure and simple to the heroic dead, and which will not be tainted with any suggestion of providing something which may be of service to selfish interests and which ought to be provided in another way.

November 1919. Many weeks of discussion about whether to buy Whinfield, which is being sold by the Dewhursts, and have it in some form as a memorial. Finally the whole matter was handed over to SUDC which formed a committee of its own to deal with the problem. In December 1919, Tom Lumb bought Whinfield for £1,250 and CrH readers were asked for suggestions for a memorial by the chairman of SUDC, John Walker.

Settle had wanted their memorial to be on top of Castleberg but had decided to settle for the market place, moving the fountain which was there.

CrH 27th Feb 1920 Skipton’s War Memorial site – It is doubtful whether the site upon which is to be erected Skipton’s War Memorial has finally been chosen, and we understand that the Committee charged with the fulfilment of a duty made necessary by the sacrifice of so many Skipton men are to consider the possibility of the erection of a monument at the top of the High Street. The original suggestion was to place the erection in Caroline Square but were this proposal carried out, the monument would prove a great hindrance to traffic until such time as the Keighley Road improvement is effected, and when will that be? It is hardly possible to conceive a more fitting site for the memorial to commemorate the names of the ‘boys’ who made history during the years of the war than that which would have as its background the historic parish church and castle. Further, were it placed on the site now suggested, one would receive a truer value of the artistic beauty of the design and the character of the treatment and workmanship than would be possible if it were erected in Caroline Square.

The difficulty which will confront the Committee if this suggestion finds favour will be the disposal of the monument erected to the memory of Sir Mathew Wilson, as it would probably be necessary to remove it from its present position. That course may open an old wound in so far as the establishment of the monument created a political controversy which it would be unwise to restart at this or any other future time. But nothing should be allowed to prevent the greatest of all memorials from occupying the most prominent position in the town.

SUDC Minutes 16th Feb 1920 Subs so far – J. Dewhurst & Sons £105, Wm Murgatroyd £100, Bank of Liverpool £50

SUDC 22nd March Photos of the selected design are to be sent to the press, and 3,000 postcards are to be printed for sale to the public.CrH 26th March 1920 “Few persons are likely quarrel with the Skipton War Memorial Committee in their choice of a design – one of over 50 submitted from noted sculptors in various parts of the country”.

Page of 1922 Craven Herald (the unveiling) is 56cm wide x 69cm deep.

“a 3-faced column embodying many features of Greek architecture. The height exceeds 28ft and a bronze figure of Victory which surmounts it brings the total height to about 35ft. Resting on a pedestal at the base is a bronze figure rather more than life-size, stooping in the act of breaking the sword across its knee”.

The cost was over £3000 and the memorial is of Portland stone. It was selected from 51 designs submitted to the Committee and made by John Cassidy, RBS RCA of Lincoln Grove Studios, Manchester.

Discussions about a suitable memorial began in 1919 and there were three main suggestions: a YMCA, the purchase of Whinfield (a private house on Keighley Road which belonged to T H Dewhurst) to be a non-sectarian, non-political social centre or a permanent memorial in Caroline Square to replace the “temporary shrine” in the High Street. After many heated discussions, the entire War Memorial Committee resigned in November 1919. Skipton Urban District Council took over the Committee’s duties.

They decided against Whinfield, although it was considered briefly as a home for the elderly mothers of servicemen, and it was put on the market and sold at auction in December 1919 and bought by paper-mill owner Tom Lumb, who in 1931 donated it to the town as the basis for Skipton Hospital.

The Council/Committee decided that a sum of not less than £3000 should be raised by subscription. Donations were slow in coming, but it was felt that once there was a design to show, more money would follow. Designs were to be submitted by the end of February 1920 and architects from “as far away as London” sent for details.

Fifty-one designs were received and these were whittled down to seven. The Committee was assisted in its final choice by Mr Butler Wilson of Leeds, Mr A.E.W. Aldridge, the Council Surveyor and Mr W T Shuttleworth, the Art Master of the Science & Art School. The proposed site was changed from Caroline Square to the top of the High Street, because “it is hardly possible to conceive a more fitting site for a Memorial to commemorate the names of the ‘boys’ who made history during the years of the war than that which would have its background the historic Parish Church and the Castle”. People would “receive a truer value of the artistic beauty of the design” if it were there. (Craven Herald 27th February 1920). The fact that the site was already occupied by the politically sensitive statue of Sir Mathew Wilson was no obstacle and in June 1921 ‘he’ was moved to his present position outside the library.

By March 1920, £548.10.6 had been raised and the sculptor had been chosen. A model of his design was put on display in the Town Hall.

The final Memorial was unveiled on April 8th 1922, and there is a whole page of coverage in the Craven Herald of April 14th. The unveiling was performed by children whose fathers had died in the war, the girls wearing their father’s medals. There were the names of 366 men and one woman on the two bronze plaques. Shops were closed. Flags flew at half-mast and a large crowd attended the service which had a brass band and choir.

WW1 Recipes – Craven Herald paid 2/6 if they published them

A very cheap dinner dish 1 cowheel 1/- 1lb tripe 1/2 small bag mixed herbs, salt & pepper. Cut up, cover with water and stew until the bones leave the cowheel. Remove bones, turn into a dish to set and it will come out like brawn, making about 3lb. Nice cold or can be put into pies. Total cost 2/2 3 dinners for 6 people.

Oatcakes Very sustaining for a child going to school. 1lb fine oatmeal, 3oz dripping, salt & pepper, pinch of bicarb, milk and hot water to moisten. Mix with shredded or melted dripping. Roll out, cut shapes and bake in a slow oven.

A cheap breakfast dish Green tops of 5-6 leeks, 5 potatoes cooked the day before, a little flour, salt & pepper. Boil leeks until tender and drain. Mash potatoes, add s&p and a little flour to bind, and form into small cakes. Fry in boiling fat.

Mock joint ½ lb soaked haricot beans, a teacup of soaked oatmeal or brown breadcrumbs, 1 onion, 1 ½ pints water, herbs, s&p, 1 oz margarine, 1 meat cube dissolved in water or a dried egg beaten in water. Boil beans and onions until soft, strain, chop onions, rub beans through sieve. Mix all, mould and bake until brown.

Meatless savoury 1 teacup rice, 3 medium onions, a walnut-size piece of dripping, small tin of tomatoes, s&p and a little vinegar if liked. Slice onions, put in pan with rice and dripping and ½ pint water. Cook until the rice is done, add rest, simmer with the lid on for ½ hour.

Breakfast pie for 6 ¼ lb sausage meat, ½ lb potatoes, walnut-sized piece of margarine, s&p, 1 tomato, a spoonful of breadcrumbs 7 ½ d Boil and mash potatoes and season. Add sausage meat. Pit a layer in a dish, add a layer of sliced, skinned tomato, add the rest on top, sprinkle with breadcrumbs. Bake until brown.

NB How did they manage to have rice and lemons when everything else was so hard to get??

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